The role of microRNAs in cancer. [21, 22] found a higher incidence of brain cancer in radar technicians and a shortened incubation period (i.e., less than 10years). It has also been reported that acute exposure to continuous waves of 900MHz EMF or 900MHz waves that were modulated to an amplitude of 50Hz increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and DNA fragmentation as a result of the hyperstimulation of glutamate receptors [73]. Bioelectromagnetics. Nicholson RM, Kusne Y, Nowak LA, LaFerla FM, Reiman EM, Valla J. The microwave will do its intended job of heating and will start to burn (or cook) the skin tissue. Qiao S, Peng R, Yan H, Gao Y, Wang C, Wang S, et al. [105] identified stable C-T mutation sites at 217 points by screening for SNPs in the GRIN2B promoter region in rats. Impairment of long-term potentiation induction is essential for the disruption of spatial memory after microwave exposure. 2005;22:32931. As a result, the existing data exhibit poor reproducibility and comparability. Preece A, Iwi G, Davies-Smith A, Wesnes K, Butler S, Lim E, et al. Clinics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. Chronic microwave exposures were executed with 2.45GHz of either modulated (power density, 0.029mW/cm2; specific absorption rate, 0.019W/kg with a sinusoidal modulation of 400Hz) or non-modulated continuous sinusoidal wave (power density, 0.033mW/cm2; specific absorption rate, 0.023W/kg) for 2h daily for 1month. 2003;140:147. Behav Brain Res. Effects of electromagnetic fields emitted from W-CDMA-like mobile phones on sleep in humans. Low intensity microwave radiation induced oxidative stress, inflammatory response and DNA damage in rat brain. Ning W, Chiang H, Yang W. Effects of GSM 1800 MHz on dendritic development of cultured hippocampal neurons. Many studies have been made on the biological effects of microwave radiation. Nimchinsky EA, Sabatini BL, Svoboda K. Structure and function of dendritic spines. Neuroreport. pability of the body (thus, a thermal effect), whereas the standard of the U.S.S.R. and Poland are based upon the interaction of the microwave fields with the brain and central nervous system as measured by neurological or behavior effects. 2012;31:25074. [14] found that gliomas are not preferentially located in the parts of the brain with the highest exposure. Most studies have suggested that microwave radiation can cause EEG abnormalities in experimental animals and participants, but some negative results have also been reported in studies using low-power microwaves. Belyaev IY, Koch CB, Terenius O, Roxstrm-Lindquist K, Malmgren LO, Sommer HW, et al. After studying these effects, Hertel concluded that microwaving food leads to food degeneration. The results showed that 2.1GHz W-CDMA-modulated microwave radiation did not cause apoptotic cell death but altered cell cycle progression [79]. 2015;36:4804. Cell Biochem Biophys. By using this website, you agree to our Cull-Candy SG, Leszkiewicz DN. Chandrasekaran K, Hatanp K, Rapoport SI, Brady DR. Therefore, the authors concluded that exposure to a radiofrequency of 900MHz might trigger the neoplastic process because it produces a relative increase in the number of potentially long-lived cells. It has been proposed that by enhancing the functions of acetylcholine, glucose can increase the concentration of free calcium ions in the synapse to reverse microwave-induced damage to learning and memory. The effects of hyperthermia and hyperthermia plus microwaves on rat brain energy metabolism. [63] exposed rat hippocampal neurons to microwaves (SAR values of 0.8W/kg and 2.4W/kg at an average power density of 1800MHz/d) and observed the formation of dendritic filopodial and dendritic branches and the maturation of dendritic spines in neurons from day 6 to 14. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013;34:58998. Bioelectromagnetics. PubMed After irradiation was applied for 2h/d for 60 d, the authors observed the following: microwave radiation produced by mobile phones damaged the brains of adult and young rats, the damage caused by mobile phones in the calling state was significantly more severe than that observed in the standby group, and the neurons of young rats were more seriously injured than those of adult rats. In particular, somatization, obsessive compulsivity, paranoid ideation and psychoticism were reported [17]. PubMed Central PubMed 2013;17:711. Gene. 2015;91:55561. J Mol Neurosci. Vorobyov V, Janac B, Pesic V, Prolic Z. At present, due to a general consensus that the most significant parameter for . The normal function of synaptic vesicles depends on the normal expression of related proteins. 2008;29:52738. [41] exposed rats to 2.45GHz microwaves (2 pulse width, 500 pps, and SAR 0.6W/kg) for 45min and found that microwave-induced behavioral alterations measured by Lai had more to do with factors related to performance bias than to spatial working memory. Electromagn Biol Med. 2 Researchers have been working. In 2011, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) announced that microwave radiation has potentially carcinogenic effects (2B). 2013;23:306. Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use: results of the INTERPHONE international case-control study. A large number of studies have shown that microwave radiation can cause a series of adverse reactions in the central nervous system, including sleep disorders in addition to learning and memory impairments. 2009;27:556572. Riedel G, Platt B, Micheau J. Glutamate receptor function in learning and memory. Wang H, Peng R, Zhou H, Wang S, Gao Y, Wang L, et al. Kang D, Hamasaki N. Mitochondrial transcription factor a in the maintenance of mitochondrial DNA. Biomed Environ Sci. Megha et al. J Sleep Res. Li H, Li C. Apoptosis gene expression and their relationship to mtDNA mutation in tumor tissues of gynecologic oncology patients. 2012;25:1828. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61571455). However, Li et al. This effect is similar to the decrease observed in NR2B in rats. Merola et al. Behav Brain Res. [50] exposed Wistar rats to 2.856GHz microwaves at an average power density of 5, 10, 20 or 30mW/cm2 for 6min three times per week for up to 6weeks and found that on day 14 after irradiation, the levels of Asp and Glu were lower in the hippocampus in the group treated with 5mW/cm2 but higher in the group treated with 30mW/cm2, The levels of GABA were elevated. Li Z, Peng RY, Wang SM, Wang LF, Gao YB, Ji D, et al. 2002;57:2702. MicroRNAs and neurodegeneration: role and impact. [20] divided the radar workers into three sets: control group (n=68), exposure group I (n=40, exposed to 812GHz) and exposure group II (n=58, working with radar at 12.518.0GHz). EEG data reflect the functional state of the brain by enlarging the autologous weak bioelectricity recorded by the EEG-recording instrument [47]. Dasdag S, Balci K, Celik M, Batun S, Kaplan A, Bolaman Z, et al. Szmigielski S. Cancer morbidity in subjects occupationally exposed to high frequency (radiofrequency and microwave) electromagnetic radiation. Those who are accustomed to using their mobile phone ipsilaterally presented a probability that was twice that of people who dont [5,6,7]. This damage plays a key role in the structural and functional changes that are accelerated by neuronal degeneration. 2006;27:16471. Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. Qiao et al. Xu et al. Cobb BL, Jauchem JR, Adair ER. A resting eyes-closed electroencephalogram was used to continuously record the results, which showed that there was an increase in the power of the , 1 and 2 frequency bands in the 0.303W/kg group and in the 2 frequency bands in the 0.003W/kg group. 2004;155:3743. Int J Occup Environ Health. Choeiri C, Staines W, Miki T, Seino S, Messier C. Glucose transporter plasticity during memory processing. In the group treated with 0.8W/kg, there was no significant change. Neurol Sci. 2002;13:11921. J Radiat Res (Tokyo). 2005;161:52635. Int J Radiat Biol. In the rat hippocampus, glucose uptake plays an important role in spatial learning and memory processes. PubMed 2023 BioMed Central Ltd unless otherwise stated. After 28days, the levels of Glu and Tau in the hippocampus and cerebrospinal fluid were lower, indicating that the cognitive damage induced by microwave radiation is associated with a decrease in Glu [66, 67]. J Clin Oncol. Richter ED, Berman T, Ben-Michael E, Laster R, Westin JB. Neuroscience. 2007;210:63544. Campisi A, Gulino M, Acquaviva R, Bellia P, Raciti G, Grasso R, et al. The conclusions are shown in Table3. 2010;86:37683. [83] found that long-term exposure to microwave radiation (typical mobile phone, at an SAR level range of 0.170.37W/kg for 3h daily for 8months, or wireless digital enhanced cordless telecommunications/telephone (DECT) base at an SAR level range of 0.0120.028W/kg for 8h/d for 8months) induced the synthesis of 143 proteins, including some neuronal function-associated proteins such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), glial maturation factor (GMF), apolipo protein E, heat-shock protein, cytoskeletal proteins and some proteins that are associated with metabolism in the brain. Eliyahu I, Luria R, Hareuveny R, Margaliot M, Meiran N, Shani G. Effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted by cellular telephones on the cognitive functions of humans. [101] exposed rats to microwave radiation at frequencies of 0, 900, 1800 and 2450MHz (SARs: 0, 0.59, 0.58 and 0.66mW/kg, respectively) using a transverse electromagnetic cell for 2months for 2h/d, 5 d/week. Using a ring resonator notch filter for optical carrier reduction and modulation depth enhancement in radio-over-fiber links. Surg Neurol. Mack et al. Per the FDA, the microwave can heat human skin. In 35% of cases, soldiers work in intermediate and hazardous zones and in 22%only in the intermediate zone. However, the problem with these studies is that different parameters, such as the frequency, modulation, and power density of the radiation and the irradiation time, were used to evaluate microwave radiation between studies. Microwaves of 50mW/cm2 increased the levels of the major excitatory amino acids Asp and glutamic acid (Glu) and the inhibitory amino acids gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and Gly, while 6h later in the 30mW/cm2 group, the level of Gly was reduced in the cerebral cortex. However, there was no change in the frequency of AMPA mEPSCs or the amplitudes of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) mEPSCs. increased with the growing in the number of devices that used the Microwave frequencies in. Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging from 300MHz to 300GHz. Chronic nonmodulated microwave radiations in mice produce anxiety-like and depression-like behaviours and calcium- and NO-related biochemical changes in the brain. Exposure of rat brain to 915 MHz GSM microwaves induces changes in gene expression but not double stranded DNA breaks or effects on chromatin conformation. Schmid MR, Murbach M, Lustenberger C, Maire M, Kuster N, Achermann P, et al. Sage C, Carpenter D, Hardell L. Comments on SCENIHR: opinion on potential health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, to date, with the exception of high-power microwave radiation, which has widely established hazardous effects, the biological effects of microwaves remain controversial. 2013;73:4737. Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Erdal ME, Erdal N, Ay OI, Ay ME, et al. [99] used a microarray and quantitative real-time PCR to analyze the miRNA expression profile in the hippocampus on days 7 and 14 after irradiation with a microwave at 30mW/cm2. Lee TM, Ho SM, Tsang LY, Yang SY, Li LS, Chan CC. Google Scholar. Nature. Mortazavi S, Tavakkoli-Golpayegani A, Haghani M, Mortazavi S. Looking at the other side of the coin: the search for possible biopositive cognitive effects of the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiofrequency radiation. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip. Zhi, WJ., Wang, LF. The effects of microwaving a human body Lia Koltyrina/Shutterstock But there are parts of the human body that are more prone to "cooking" fast, such as the eyeballs and testes. Raised glucose levels enhance scopolamine-induced acetylcholine overflow from the hippocampus: an in vivo microdialysis study in the rat. 2011;31:2293301. It addresses the impact on developing head and brain tumours, other morbidity-related outcomes and summarizes the biological effects of RF and microwave radiation. Medical and biological aspects of the effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic (EM) fields and radiation on human health . In broadcasting, the sources of microwaves are mainly FM radio and TV broadcasting antennas, which produce frequencies ranging from 80 to 800MHz. 2016;53:210011. [38] exposed Wistar rats to a 2.856GHz pulsed microwave field for 6min. However, a recent report [3] published by the Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) noted that discussions about the thermal and non-thermal effects are misleading. Dasdag S, Akdag MZ, Kizil G, Kizil M, Cakir DU, Yokus B. However, these effects were not observed in radial arm maze tests. Interphone study group. Motawi et al. static fields, health effects, human health, environmental effects, SCENIHR, Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks Opinion to be cited as: Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2009;158:12639. 1 Microwave radiation may also lead to skin cancer/health problems when we are within the radius of a cell phone tower in a certain specified limited distance. The former is now recognized worldwide as a method for evaluating learning and memory, while the latter is viewed as more susceptible to other factors. Neurologic and biochemical findings and CD4/CD8 ratio in people occupationally exposed to RF and microwave. Int J Radiat Biol. statement and Behav Brain Res. The results suggested that chronic non-modulated, but not modulated, microwave radiation may cause anxiety-like and depression-like behaviors and calcium- and NO-related biochemical changes in the brain [77]. Neurosci Lett. A significant increase in ROS levels and DNA fragmentation were observed only after the astrocytes were exposed to modulated EMF for 20min, perhaps as a result of hyperstimulation of glutamate receptors. 2004;996:8996. 2015;140:23646. Bioelectromagnetics. 2007;28:187380. Whole-body exposure to 2.45 GHz electromagnetic fields does not alter 12-arm radial-maze with reduced access to spatial cues in rats. Based on this background, in this review, we first summarized the effects of microwave radiation on the central nervous system, including the epidemiology, morphology, electroencephalograms, learning and memory abilities and mechanisms of underlying brain dysfunction from the perspective of synaptic structures and functions, oxidative stress and apoptosis, protein synthesis, genes and individual susceptibility and energy metabolism. Synapses are special structures that are involved in the transmission of electrochemical signals between neurons in the central nervous system. [68] radiated Wistar rats with microwaves (30mW/cm2; SAR value, 14.1W/kg), and then detected the expression of synaptic vesicle-associated proteins and found that synaptophys in I and VAMP-2, which are synaptic fusion proteins, and synaptic vesicle proteins were abnormally expressed to different degrees. This study concerns the effects of microwave on health because they pervade diverse fields of our lives. frequency range from 1GHz to 10^6 GHz. Melatonin and serotonin levels were estimated, which play important roles in the nervous system. When nerve endings are excited, the vesicles release their contents into the synaptic cleft, resulting in synaptic transmission. While microwave oven radiation doesn't cause cancer, it can cause painful burns if you're exposed to them. Cancer in radar technicians exposed to radiofrequency/microwave radiation: sentinel episodes. Ito K, Hirao A, Arai F, Takubo K, Matsuoka S, Miyamoto K, et al. However, its beneficial effects should not be ignored [26]. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. 2011;35:36978. Electromagn Biol Med. Calabr E, Condello S, Curr M, Ferlazzo N, Caccamo D, Magaz S, et al. Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content: Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. The transduction of a nerve impulse and the postsynaptic potential produced by it result in synaptic transmission. The results showed that gestational Wi-Fi exposure and restraint adversely affected offspring neurodevelopment and behavior in adulthood. Mol Brain Res. However, impaired learning and memory were only observed in males. Human SH-SY5YNB cells were exposed to 2.1GHz W-CDMA modulated microwave radiation for 24h at a specific absorption rate of 0.491W/kg. It influences both learning and memory in rats [67]. World J Biol Chem. Xiong et al. Cosquer B, Kuster N, Cassel JC. Othman H, Ammari M, Rtibi K, Bensaid N, Sakly M, Abdelmelek H. Postnatal development and behavior effects of in-utero exposure of rats to radiofrequency waves emitted from conventional WiFi devices. 2002;64:31353. The function of dendritic spines: devices subserving biochemical rather than electrical computation. Numerous studies have shown that increased acetylcholine is related to promotion of the effect of glucose on memory [112,113,114]. Nat Med. The hippocampus plays roles in learning and memory, and the results of these studies suggest that the deficits in learning and memory functions observed after exposure to microwave irradiation might be due to abnormalities induced in hippocampal structures. Instead, the effects of exposure of hu-mans and other life forms must be deter-mined and used to set realistic permissi-ble exposure limits. Yale J Biol Med. Bioelectromagnetics. Schz J, Jacobsen R, Olsen JH, Boice JD, McLaughlin JK, Johansen C. Cellular telephone use and cancer risk: update of a nationwide Danish cohort. J Neurosci. Laboratory of Experimental Pathology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing, 100850, China, You can also search for this author in Then that poisonous acid harms the kidneys and nervous system. Moreover, the risk of developing Alzheimers disease is 3040% lower in people who use a mobile phone for more than 10years than in other individuals [35]. Pathophysiology. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip. Defective actin dynamics in dendritic spines: cause or consequence of age-induced cognitive decline? 2004;2004:19. The results were significant for the range from 12.518.0GHz with a service period greater than 10years. Thus, in the early developmental stage, chronic exposure to 2.4W/kg GSM microwaves may influence dendritic development and the formation of excitatory synapses in cultures of hippocampal neurons. However, other reports have indicated that unlike ionizing radiation, the microwave radiation produced by mobile phones does not possess sufficient energy to directly damage DNA. Military Med Res 4, 29 (2017). 1990;39:13543. 2015;91:42634. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Jeong J. EEG dynamics in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Long term and excessive use of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation alter microRNA expression in brain. Does MW radiation affect gene expression, apoptotic level, and cell cycle progression of human sh-sy5y neuroblastoma cells? In 43% of devices, military personnel are not exposed to an electromagnetic field. With the increasing number of applications that use microwave technology, its negative effects on the human body have attracted attention. Oto R, Akda Z, Dada S, Celik Y. broad definition in terms of frequencies between. Fragopoulou et al. [15] assessed the use of mobile and cordless phones in 347 cases of melanoma in the head and neck region and 1184 controls and found no increased risk. Nakatani-Enomoto S, Furubayashi T, Ushiyama A, Groiss SJ, Ueshima K, Sokejima S, et al. Lymphatic Systems: Due to chemical alterations within food substances, malfunctions occur in the lymphatic system, causing a degeneration of the body's ability to . : a biochemical study on mouse brain. 2010;3:4650. Int J Radiat Biol. Evaluation of Psychologic parameters in people occupationally exposed to radiofrequencies and microwave. The largest problem in these studies is that they used different parameters, such as the frequency, modulation, power density and irradiation time, to apply microwave radiation, in addition to using a variety of research methods. It has been reported that microwave radiation can induce lipid peroxidation of cell membranes and produce apoptotic signals [74, 75]. Mortazavi S, Rouintan M, Taeb S, Dehghan N, Ghaffarpanah A, Sadeghi Z, et al. Among the variety of neurotransmitters, glutamate is the most abundant endogenous amino acid in the mammalian central nervous system. Previous studies have shown that in unexposed control rats, hippocampal neurons are aligned in neat rows in which the edges are clear, nuclei are clear, nucleoli can be observed, and pyramidal cells do not exhibit obvious necrosis. their effects on the human body are vastly different: - Non-ionizing Radiation Frequency range: 0.1 - 1013 Hz . 2006;27:295306. 2013;42:428. A metabolomic approach to screening urinary metabolites upon microwave exposure in monkeys. ventajas y desventajas de la gatt,